Freight-Forwarder Liability Insurance
As we always regard as our very first priority the security of all operations with your goods, jointly with our partners from DZI we have prepared a number of products to guarantee it. The FREIGHT-FORWARDER LIABILITY insurance policy that we hold at all times is an additional warranty for your cargo.
CMR (International Waybill for Carriage of Goods by Road)
Among numerous conventions that regulate the business of international haulers, first comes the Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR Convention) dated 19 May 1956, concluded under the Economic Commission for Europe with the United Nations. Republic of Bulgaria joined the convention on 29 July 1977 by virtue of the then issued Ordinance №1143. By its very nature it is not a customs convention, but in practice it plays major role for the customs control system and is essential element when proceeding with customs clearance.
TIR CARNET is an international transport warranty document to cover payable customs duties up to 50 000 US dollars. It is being issued under the international TIR convention, guarantee being provided by the duly authorized organizations, that is IRU (International Road Union) and for Bulgaraia: AEBTRI (Association of the Bulgarian Enterprises for International Road Transport and the Roads).
In practice, the TIR carnet is an internationally accepted document for transit of goods, under the coverage of the guarantee extended by the issuing organization. According to this convention, goods are carried in vehicles and containers on which customs stamps and seals have been put. It is necessary that said vehicles have been first approved by the methods set out in the Convention as well as to hold a valid Certificate of Customs Compliance.
Maximum allowed load
In order to avoid overloading the vehicles, we provide information on the maximum allowed loads of trucks in the different countries.
The purpose of INCOTERMS is to provide the framework of international rules for interpretation of most commonly used commercial terms in international trade. Thus, different interpretations of such terms in different countries can be avoided or at least greatly reduced.
In order to not allow misunderstanding between negotiating parties and to alleviate their discussions, the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris accepted in 1936 unified International Rules for Interpretation of Trade Terms, known as Incoterms that is short for International Commercial Terms. For each delivery term, the obligations of each party to the goods delivery transaction, separately for buyer and seller are specified in great detail (on several pages).
The INCOTERMS rules have been subject to several revisions, where modifications and amendments have been made concerning both the number and names of the positions, as well as their contents: years 1953, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 The last edition of the document is „Incoterms-2010“. In Edition 2010 four codes have been discontinued that is DDU, DEQ, DES and DAF. Two new positions are added as well: DAT and DAP making the latest edition contain altogether 11 codes.
Starting from 1990 edition, to make things easier, the delivery terms have been grouped by the distribution of obligations between the two parties to the contract as follows:
- Group E – the seller only supplies the merchandise to the seller (usually in his own warehouse);
- Group F – the seller passes the goods to a transporter to be specified by the buyer;
- Group C – the seller provides the carriage without bearing the risk of loss or damage of the goods and/or additional expenses;
- Group D – the seller takes at his expense all costs and risks for delivery of goods to their final destination.
- EXW / EX Works (named place) = franco the factory (place agreed upon)
- FCA / Free Carrier (named place) = franco the transporter (place agreed upon)
- FAS / Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment) franco alongside the ship (port of shipment agreed upon)
- FOB / Free On Board (named port of shipment) = franco on board (port of shipment agreed upon)
- CFR / Cost and Freight (named port of destination) = cost of goods plus freight (port of destination agreed upon)
- CIF / Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination) = cost, insurance and freight (port of destination agreed upon)
- CPT / Carriage Paid To (named place of destination) = carriage paid to (destination agreed upon)
- CIP / Carriage and Insurance Paid То (named place of destination) = carriage and insurance paid to (destination agreed upon)
- DAP / Delivered at Place (named place of destination) = delivery to a place (destination agreed upon)
- DDP / Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination) = delivered and duty paid, (destination agreed upon)
- DAT/ Delivered at Terminal(named terminal of destination) = delivered at terminal (terminal of destination agreed upon)
Dangerous substances are materials (chemical agents) which due to their chemical, physical or biological properties, if handled improperly, can lead to death, damage to human health, body injury or financial losses. Dangerous materials are grouped in following classes based on their properties:
1 – Explosive materials and objects
2 – Gases
3 –Flammable liquids
4.1 – Solid flammable chemicals, self-activating agents and explosive desensibilized solid substances
4.2 – Spontaneously combustable substances
4.3 – Substances that in contact with water emit flammable gases
5.1 – Oxidizing substances keeping fire on
5.2 – Organic peroxide
6.1 – Toxic substances
6.2 – Infectious substances
7 – Radioactive materials
8 – Corrosive substances
9 – Miscellaneous dangerous goods
Dangerous goods are substances and goods, the transportation of which is prohibited under the ADR Convention or is permitted but only at the conditions set forth therein. In practice, this means that the transport of dangerous goods – due to the need to safeguard people and environment – is subject to separate regulation concerning permitting the carriage of particular substance, its classification, requirements for packaging, labeling as well as special requirements for the vehicle carrying the goods and the procedures involved in the transport.